Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a compound created whenever you digest cruciferous greens, equivalent to broccoli or Brussels sprouts (1, 2).
Analysis means that DIM impacts estrogen ranges in your physique (1).
Because of this, DIM dietary supplements have been gaining recognition as a possible remedy for quite a lot of hormone-related situations, together with pimples, menopause signs, prostate points, and sure types of most cancers.
Nonetheless, it’s possible you’ll ponder whether these makes use of are backed by scientific proof.
This text gives a complete overview of DIM dietary supplements, together with their advantages and uncomfortable side effects.
Once you eat cruciferous greens, your abdomen acid breaks down a compound referred to as indole-3-carbinol to provide a brand new compound referred to as DIM (3).
Intriguingly, observational research affiliate excessive cruciferous vegetable consumption with a diminished danger of sure cancers, together with breast and prostate most cancers. Whereas the precise mechanism is unknown, indole-3-carbinol is regarded as partly accountable (4, 5, 6).
Though analysis on DIM remains to be fairly restricted, it’s thought to assist steadiness estrogen ranges in your physique (1).
Particularly, DIM might stimulate the manufacturing of a much less potent, extra helpful type of estrogen often called 2-hydroxyestrone (1).
It could additionally assist scale back the consequences of a stronger kind referred to as 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone, which has been linked to weight achieve and an elevated danger of some cancers, together with breast and uterine most cancers (1, 7).
Moreover, DIM has been proven to inhibit an enzyme referred to as aromatase, which converts testosterone to estrogen (1).
Whereas cruciferous greens are the first meals supply of DIM, you would wish to eat a number of servings day-after-day to reap this compound’s advantages (1).
Because of this, folks trying to deal with a particular situation like pimples or prostate points might search a concentrated dose within the type of a DIM complement.
DIM is a compound your physique makes from cruciferous greens. Whereas extra analysis is required, it’s thought to assist steadiness hormone ranges through its results on estrogen.
DIM dietary supplements are being studied for his or her protecting results towards sure cancers. They’re additionally used to assist stop prostate enlargement, deal with pimples, help weight reduction, and scale back premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menopause signs.
Whereas these advantages are promising, total analysis on DIM’s effectiveness and long-term security in people is restricted.
Could have anticancer results
Check-tube and animal research recommend that DIM dietary supplements might assist stop the expansion and unfold of breast most cancers cells. Nonetheless, human research are restricted (1, 2).
A yearlong examine gave 130 ladies with breast most cancers on tamoxifen remedy both a placebo or 150 mg of DIM twice a day. DIM dietary supplements resulted in a considerably improved ratio of two varieties of estrogen — 2-hydroxyestrone and 16-hydrozyestrone (8).
Though analysis is ongoing, rising the ratio of 2-hydrozyestrone to 16-hydrozyesterone might scale back breast most cancers danger and trigger anti-tumor results (8).
A 30-day examine in 19 post-menopausal ladies with early-stage breast most cancers discovered that taking 108 mg of DIM per day additionally resulted in helpful modifications in estrogen ranges (9).
Check-tube and animal research point out that DIM protects towards ovarian, prostate, and colon cancers as effectively. All the identical, human research are wanted (10, 11, 12).
Notably, a mouse examine discovered that DIM helped stop cervical most cancers. Nonetheless, in a 6-month examine in 551 ladies with cervical abnormalities, taking 150 mg of DIM per day had no impact on cervical cell modifications (3, 13).
Could shield towards prostate points
DIM dietary supplements might safeguard towards prostate enlargement and prostate most cancers.
In truth, it could assist fight prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), a situation that’s characterised by prostate cell development and thought of to be a precursor to prostate most cancers (14).
In a 12-month examine, 21 males with high-grade PIN got both a placebo or 900 mg of DIM per day. These given DIM skilled vital enhancements in prostate well being, in addition to PIN (14).
Check-tube and animal research likewise recommend that DIM helps battle prostate most cancers. Nonetheless, extra human analysis is critical (15).
Could enhance weight reduction
On condition that estrogen performs an essential position in regulating fats accumulation, DIM dietary supplements might help weight reduction — though no human analysis at present helps this impact.
All the identical, research hyperlink an imbalance of estrogen — both an excessive amount of or too little — to an elevated danger of weight achieve in each women and men (16, 17, 18).
Moreover, DIM dietary supplements might stimulate fats breakdown and inhibit fats cell formation.
In a single examine in mice on a excessive fats eating regimen, 23 mg of DIM per pound (50 mg per kg) of physique weight considerably diminished the formation of recent fats cells (19).
Needless to say human research are wanted.
Different potential makes use of and advantages
DIM dietary supplements are purported to help different hormone-related situations. Nonetheless, it’s essential to do not forget that analysis is missing on all of those results.
- Could battle pimples. DIM dietary supplements are generally used to deal with hormonal pimples. Nonetheless, no analysis at present helps this use (20, 21).
- Could scale back sizzling flashes. Sizzling flashes throughout menopause probably end result from hormonal modifications. Whereas DIM dietary supplements are used to scale back sizzling flashes, their effectiveness isn’t supported by analysis (22, 23).
- Could relieve PMS signs. PMS signs are regarded as as a result of month-to-month modifications in estrogen ranges. Once more, some folks use DIM dietary supplements to scale back signs, however analysis hasn’t confirmed their effectiveness (24).
- Could right estrogen imbalances in males. Excessive ranges of estrogen in males are linked to breast development, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. DIM dietary supplements could also be efficient however haven’t but been studied in people (25, 26).
Restricted research recommend that DIM dietary supplements might assist scale back prostate enlargement and shield towards sure cancers. Nonetheless, their effectiveness for different hormone-related situations hasn’t been extensively studied.
Because of an absence of analysis in people, little is understood concerning the long-term security and uncomfortable side effects of DIM dietary supplements.
Present human analysis doesn’t present DIM dietary supplements to be poisonous or have severe uncomfortable side effects. The most typical uncomfortable side effects embody darkening of the urine, a rise in bowel actions, complications, and fuel (3, 8).
Much less frequent uncomfortable side effects embody nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pores and skin rash (3).
As DIM dietary supplements work together with estrogen ranges, they could have an effect on folks with hormone-sensitive cancers or who’re on hormone therapies. Such people ought to keep away from DIM dietary supplements until below the supervision of a medical skilled.
Regardless of your medical historical past, it’s essential to seek the advice of your healthcare supplier earlier than taking these dietary supplements.
DIM dietary supplements haven’t been proven to trigger severe uncomfortable side effects, although extra security analysis is required. Folks on hormone therapies or with sure hormone-related cancers ought to keep away from these dietary supplements.
Because of restricted analysis, correct dosages for DIM are unknown.
In human analysis, doses sometimes vary from 108–900 mg per day — although these research had been solely associated to therapies for most cancers and prostate enlargement (8, 9, 14).
Nonetheless, a examine in 24 wholesome folks discovered that though DIM doses of as much as 200 mg had been effectively tolerated and didn’t trigger uncomfortable side effects, one individual skilled nausea, headache, and vomiting after taking a 300-mg dose, suggesting that larger doses could also be related to opposed uncomfortable side effects (15).
Different makes use of of DIM dietary supplements, equivalent to weight reduction and pimples remedy, haven’t been studied in people.
Subsequently, it’s greatest to speak to your healthcare supplier to acquire customized dosage suggestions based mostly in your supposed use.
Because of inadequate proof, dosage info for DIM is missing. Earlier than taking these dietary supplements, get dosage steerage out of your healthcare supplier.
DIM is a compound your physique creates whenever you eat cruciferous greens. It’s additionally concentrated and offered as a complement.
Because it impacts estrogen ranges, DIM might assist deal with quite a lot of situations, together with hormone-sensitive cancers and prostate points.
Nonetheless, additional research are wanted — significantly for makes use of associated to pimples, weight reduction, and PMS signs, which aren’t at present backed by human analysis.
Thus, you need to speak to your healthcare supplier earlier than taking DIM dietary supplements.
Regardless of DIM’s effectiveness, it’s all the time good to eat extra cruciferous veggies. In any case, greens like broccoli and kale are wealthy sources of essential vitamins, together with fiber, antioxidants, nutritional vitamins, and minerals.