Entrepreneur: Definition, Traits, Varieties of Entrepreneur

Entrepreneurs are action-oriented extremely motivated people who take dangers to realize objectives. An entrepreneur is an innovator of a brand new mixture within the discipline of manufacturing.

The entrepreneur is the founding father of the enterprise who identifies alternatives, assembles expert manpower and obligatory assets for the operation of the enterprise, attracts individuals and monetary Establishments and takes psychological duty for managing the enterprise efficiently.

Idea of Entrepreneur

The phrase ‘Entrepreneur’ is derived from the French phrase “Entreprendre” means, “to undertake.”

There are two well-liked beliefs about who the individual was who used the time period entrepreneur in economics.

It’s believed that the phrase “Entrepreneur” was first utilized by the Irish banker working in Franco Ricardo Cantillon.

One other perception is that the French economist J. B. Say (1824) was first used the phrase entrepreneur in economics. It’s derived from the French phrase “Entreprendre” means, “to undertake”.

Oxford English dictionary has adopted this phrase in 1897 and meant as “director or supervisor of a public musical establishment”. The time period goes by means of evolutionary modifications of which means. Until now, there is no such thing as a consensual idea of entrepreneurs.

Within the early sixteenth century, it was utilized to those that had been engaged in army expeditions. It was prolonged to cowl civil engineering actions Similar to development and fortification within the seventeenth century.

It was solely at the start of the 18th century that the phrase was used to confer with financial points. On this method, the evolution of the idea of an entrepreneur is taken into account over greater than 4 centuries.

Since then, the time period ‘entrepreneur’ is utilized in numerous methods and numerous views.

These views are broadly categorized into three teams, specifically, risk-bearer, organizer and innovator.

Entrepreneur as a Danger-Bearer

Richard Cantillon, an Irish man residing in France, was the primary who launched the time period ‘entrepreneur’ and his distinctive risk-bearing operate in economics within the early 18th century.

He outlined an entrepreneur as an agent who buys elements of manufacturing at sure costs to mix them right into a product to promote it at unsure costs sooner or later.

He illustrated a farmer who pays out contractual incomes that are sure to the landlords and laborers and sells at costs which are ‘unsure’.

He additional states that so do retailers additionally who make sure funds in expectation of unsure receipts.

Thus, they too are ‘risk-bearing’ brokers of manufacturing.

Knight additionally described an entrepreneur to be a specialised group of persons- who bear uncertainty.

Uncertainty is outlined as a danger that can not be insured towards and is incalculable. He, thus, distinguishes between peculiar danger and uncertainty.

A danger will be lowered by means of the insurance coverage precept, the place the distribution of the result in a gaggle of cases is understood.

Quite the opposite, uncertainty is the chance that can not be calculated.

The entrepreneur, in accordance with Knight, is the financial functionary who undertakes such duty of uncertainty which by its very nature can’t be insured, nor capitalized nor salaried too.

Entrepreneur as Organiser

Jean-Baptiste Say, an aristocratic industrialist, together with his disagreeable sensible experiences developed the idea of entrepreneur a bit of additional which survived for nearly two centuries.

His definition associates entrepreneur with the fijHfcons of coordination, group, and supervision.

In accordance with him, an entrepreneur combines the land of 1, the labor of one other and the capital of yet one more, and, thus, produces a product.

By promoting the product available in the market, he pays curiosity oh capital, lease on land and wages to laborers and what stays is his/her revenue.

Thus, Say has made a transparent distinction between the function of the capitalist as a financer and the entrepreneur as an organizer.

He additional elaborates that in the midst of endeavor a number of advanced operations like obstacles to be surmounted, anxieties to be suppressed, misfortunes to be repaired and expedients to be devised, three extra implicit elements are deemed to be important.

These are:

  1. Ethical qualities for work judgment, perseverance and a chunk of information in regards to the enterprise world.
  2. Command over ample capital, and
  3. Uncertainty of income.

Marshall5 additionally advocated the importance of group among the many companies of a particular class of enterprise undertakers.

Entrepreneur as an Innovator

Joseph A, Schumpeter, for the primary time in 1934, assigned an important function of ‘innovation’ to the entrepreneur in his magnum opus ‘Principle of Financial Improvement’.

Schumpeter thought-about financial growth as a discrete dynamic change introduced by an entrepreneur by instituting new combos of manufacturing, i.e., improvements.

The introduction of a brand new mixture of things of manufacturing, in accordance with him, might happen in any one of many following 5 types:

  1. The introduction of a brand new product available on the market.
  2. The instituting of a brand new manufacturing expertise which isn’t but examined by expertise within the department of manufacture involved.
  3. The opening of a brand new market into which the particular product has not beforehand entered.
  4. The invention of a brand new supply of provide of uncooked materials.
  5. The finishing up of the brand new type of group of any business by making a monopoly place or the breaking apart of if.

Schumpeter additionally made a distinction between an inventor and an innovator. An inventor is one who discovers new strategies and new supplies. And, an innovator makes use of innovations and discoveries to make new combos.

Specialists within the discipline of economics, enterprise and sociology have outlined entrepreneurs from numerous factors of view.

What’s an Entrepreneur?

Adam Smith (1776) considers entrepreneur as a proprietary capitalist who provides capital and works as a supervisor intervening between labor and the patron.

Francis A. Walker (1870) calls the entrepreneurs as engineers of progress and the chief brokers of manufacturing.

F. H. Knight (1921) propounds that entrepreneurs are a specialised group of individuals who bear dangers and cope with uncertainty.

J-A. Mill (1848) advocates for utilizing the phrase entrepreneur within the sense of an organizer who’s paid for his non-manual sort of labor.

J.B. Say (1824) defines an s entrepreneur as “an financial agent who assembles elements of manufacturing, see the s value of produce in such a method that ensures the associated fee and revenue, re-accumulates capital and possesses administrative and productive information.”

The definition emphasizes the financial actions of an entrepreneur.

This idea can also be supported by Hagen Se Robinson (1942). The emphasis on socio-economic contributions and traits of entrepreneurs.

The innovation right here is conceived because the introduction of a brand new product or new utility of the previous product, new market, new manufacturing strategies, a brand new supply of uncooked supplies and new group.

Herberton G. Evans (I957) defines, “Entrepreneur Is the individual or group of individuals who’ve the duty of figuring out the type of enterprise to be operated.”

Evan’s entrepreneur solely engages m setting the character of the enterprise, the nice to be produced or the service to be served and the kind of prospects to be catered.

H. Cole (1959) observes, “The entrepreneur is the person who initiates, maintains, or aggrandizes a profit-oriented enterprise salt for the manufacturing or distribution of financial items and companies.”

Cole believes that the one who engages in any financial exercise to earn a revenue is the entrepreneur. Subsequently, revenue incomes is the focus to determine an entrepreneur.

This definition facilities on the idea of managership and implies that an entrepreneur is a supervisor too.

The entrepreneur has been understood otherwise underneath the up to date situation in a seminar held on entrepreneurship in Delhi in 1981.

The consensus was “Entrepreneur is an individual who accepts challenges, provides emphasis on manufacturing for growth, workouts vigilance about success and failure on the time of taking commonplace dangers and considers, fastidiously and important range circumstances earlier than arriving at any resolution.”

The idea has taken us to the concept of efforts and ventures that contribute to the appearance of facial progress resulting in human welfare; it constructs upon bodily actions concerned with the technology of merchandise as writ because the psychological side related to entrepreneurial success.

Their entrepreneurs as robust achievers of objectives and risk-takers for any desired motion for attaining the success of the ventures’ John G. Burch (1986) says, “The entrepreneur is the one who undertakes a enterprise, organizes it, raises capital to finance it, and assumes all or a significant portion of the chance”.

Burch’s entrepreneur isn’t solely a enterprise but additionally a risk-taker and capital supplier too. Entrepreneur brings skills, product -service enterprise concepts, know-how and often, supplies finance with taking obligatory dangers.

Traits of an Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur is an individual who’s action-oriented and extremely motivated to take a danger and to realize such a aim dot brings a few change within the means of producing items or companies or re-initiates progress within the introduction of making new organizations.

Subsequently, specialists have 9 traits for the entrepreneur from completely different conceptual viewpoints.

10 traits of an entrepreneur are;

  1. Entrepreneur is an agent.
  2. Entrepreneur is a risk-taker.
  3. Entrepreneur is a revenue maker.
  4. Entrepreneur is an achievement motivator.
  5. Entrepreneur is a capital supplier.
  6. Entrepreneur is the determinant of the character of the enterprise.
  7. Entrepreneur is an innovator.
  8. Entrepreneur is a reward receiver.
  9. Entrepreneur is a problem taker.

The traits that embody the idea of the entrepreneur are mentioned beneath:

1. Entrepreneur is an agent

An entrepreneur is perceived as an financial agent who assembles supplies for producing items at a value that ensures income and re-accumulation of capital.

He’s additionally understood as a change agent who brings about modifications within the construction and formation of the group, market and the sector of products and companies.

2. Entrepreneur is a risk-taker

Many specialists – previous and new, have emphasised this attribute. Again I955, Redlich identified that an entrepreneur is an individual who identifies the character of danger and takes a choice.

In a while, Burch, Meredith and different specialists have agreed that an entrepreneur is a risk-taker whereas endeavor a enterprise.

3. Entrepreneur is a revenue maker

An entrepreneur is a person who establishes and manages the enterprise for the principal objective of revenue and development.

4. Entrepreneur is an achievement motivator

David C. McClelland has initiated this idea of the entrepreneur by calling him “as per solar with a robust need for achievement.”

In a while, Meredith and others have expressed the identical idea whereas they termed “entrepreneurs are action-oriented, extremely’ motivated people.”

Subsequently, entrepreneurs need to have a deep-rooted want for attaining their objectives.

5. Entrepreneur is a capital supplier

Entrepreneur an individual who operates a enterprise by investing his or her capital. Abbett first identified this attribute in 1967.

It supported by Nadkami (l97S) and Sharma (1981). They perceived entrepreneur because the founding father of an enterprise who assembles obligatory assets for the operation of the enterprise.

6. Entrepreneur is the determinant of the character of the enterprise

This attribute /idea of the entrepreneur was promoted by Evans in 1957 It says that an entrepreneur is the individual or group of individuals who carry out the duty of figuring out the type of enterprise to the operated.

Subsequently, entrepreneurs promote diversified and distinct sorts of enterprise in society.

7. Entrepreneur is an innovator

Joseph A. Schumpeter {1934) characterised entrepreneur as an innovator of a brand new mixture within the discipline of manufacturing In a while Robinson (1962) and Hagen (1962) have described entrepreneurs as an individual who lakes a small enterprise to the sting of success by his efforts, innovation and motivation.

Innovation is perceived by Schumpeter as an motion that introduces a product, a brand new high quality, a brand new methodology of manufacturing, a brand new market and a brand new group.

Subsequently, an entrepreneur innovates one thing that brings about disequilibria within the business.

8. Entrepreneur is a reward receiver

An entrepreneur is an individual who creates one thing new of worth by devoting time and efforts and in tum receives financial and private rewards. Max Weber, Hartman, Hisrich and Peters have acknowledged this distinct phenomenon of entrepreneurs.

9. Entrepreneur is a problem taker

It perceives an entrepreneur as an individual who accepts challenges for growing and exercising vigilance about success and failure to take a danger and to generate merchandise.

The above-mentioned characterizes an entrepreneur present’ that an entrepreneur is a dynamic one who promotes society and civilization by taking ventures that give an unlimited number of items and organizations to result in modifications within the area of commercial exercise.

Varieties of Entrepreneurs

There’s a lengthy checklist of entrepreneurs in our civilization who had been instrumental in introducing new strategies, merchandise, new markets, and new types of industrial group.

Such individuals had been drawn from all strata of society.

They had been the one who valued enterprise as a method and signal of feat, they had been that individuals who appreciated the potential for improvements and so they had been individuals who tried to beat the resistances and obstacles standing in the best way of doing new issues.

They had been the nice figures of the Industrial Revolution in England who earned their repute as innovators and organizers.

Entrepreneurs take numerous initiatives with numerous motives that direct them to varied useful areas.

This context and motives are taken right here because the bases for classifying entrepreneurs into completely different classes within the beneath chart.

Nature Foundation Entrepreneurs Classification

Nature denotes right here the human traits that act as a first-rate motivator for taking entrepreneurial ventures. On this foundation entrepreneurs are categorized into two teams;

  1. Particular person entrepreneur: Particular person is the pioneer of entrepreneurship within the historical past of human civilization. When a single individual undertakes an entrepreneurial enterprise then it’s termed as a person entrepreneur.
  2. Institutional entrepreneur: Establishments are-groups of individuals with a standard aim. When an establishment undertakes entrepreneurial ventures then it’s referred to as an institutional entrepreneur.

Each of the above classes; particular person and institutional arc additional categorized into numerous sorts of their motivational drive.

  1. Technical Entrepreneur

The entrepreneur that utilities a modified type of current expertise for producing a superb or rendering service is called a expertise entrepreneur.

The individual acquainted to a specific expertise might even see a number of the potential modifications, which is able to make cost-effective output. This generates/ promotes technical entrepreneurs.

These entrepreneurs might enter the enterprise to commercially exploit their innovations and discoveries.

Their fundamental asset is technical experience.

They elevate the required capital and make use of specialists in monetary, authorized, advertising and marketing and different areas of enterprise. Their success relies upon upon how briskly they begin manufacturing and on the acceptance of their merchandise available in the market.

  1. Modern Entrepreneur

An progressive entrepreneur is an individual who discovers new use of the previous product by means of including new utilities; innovation denotes new methods of labor, new market, a brand new supply of supplies, new administration type or system, a brand new technique or a brand new alternative within the current or future surroundings.

Subsequently, the one who takes the initiative to do current actions in a brand new method that has worth to prospects known as an progressive entrepreneur.

  1. Drone Entrepreneur

Drone entrepreneurs are these individuals who can instantly switch a chance right into a viable venture. The surroundings is an ever-changing phenomenon.

Any change in any variable of an surroundings might carry a few worthwhile alternative for initiating some exercise of entrepreneurship.

A clever and prudent entrepreneur might grasp the seen change and its potentiality and initiates a enterprise of monumental prosperity. Subsequently, they’re referred to as drones or opportunist entrepreneurs.

  1. Imitative Entrepreneurs

Imitation is the artwork of making a product much like one other product already in (he market. An individual who adopts this system is an imitative or adoptive entrepreneur.

Franchising is a well-liked strategy to imitate a product. Imitative entrepreneurs are most fitted for under-developed nations as a result of in these nations individuals favor lo imitate the expertise, information, and abilities already accessible in additional superior international locations.

  1. Fabian Entrepreneurs

Fabian entrepreneurs are very cautious and skeptical whereas practising any change. They’re shy and lazy. Their dealing is set by customized, faith and previous practices.

Fabian entrepreneurs would not have a lot curiosity in taking a danger and attempt to comply with the footsteps of the predecessors. When they’re clear that the prospect of failure doesn’t exist and there’s no chance of loss in a particular- enterprise from the expertise of others available in the market, then they take the enterprise initiatives.

  1. Compelled Entrepreneurs

The entrepreneurs who’re compelled to be so by the competing surroundings are referred to as compelled entrepreneurs. The autumn of a enterprise might drive an individual to provoke a brand new enterprise.

Intercourse Foundation Entrepreneurs Classification

Entrepreneurs are categorized based mostly on the pure division of people and subsequently, there are two sections of entrepreneurs on the standards of intercourse. They’re female and male entrepreneurs.

Traditionally, male entrepreneurs are the dominant entrepreneurial class in our civilization.

Place Foundation Entrepreneurs Classification

The place of entrepreneurial exercise is the premise of classifying entrepreneurs into two classes, corresponding to rural and concrete entrepreneurs.

City entrepreneurs are the individuals who provoke their enterprise within the city space of a rustic. They’re massive in quantity in all of the international locations of the world.

The balanced development of the financial system requires rural entrepreneurs too.

Rural entrepreneurs take their initiatives in rural areas of the nation. They use indigenous assets, which improve the usage of native pure assets and improve the native lifestyle.

Measurement Foundation Entrepreneurs Classification

The dimensions of an entrepreneurial venture is taken as a foundation for categorizing entrepreneurs into two lessons.


  1. Small scale entrepreneur: Small-scale entrepreneurs are those that have small capital or funding, in addition to small manufacturing capability, variety of employment and a small space of the market, it denotes the restricted operation of a enterprise.
  2. Massive scale entrepreneurs: Massive-scale entrepreneurs are these individuals or teams of individuals who provoke a enterprise with a large-scale manufacturing capability. They deal with massive mixture demand and contain with large funding in manufacturing expertise. They’re small in quantity in all of the international locations of the world.

Era Foundation Entrepreneurs Classification

Entrepreneurs are categorized within the context of technology bathroom. The large sorts of new ventures provoke this classification.

  1. New technology entrepreneurs: New technology entrepreneurs arc those that make the most of expertise or thought of their new model. Cybercafe, fast-food store, digital universities are a number of of the examples of recent technology entrepreneurial tasks.
  2. Previous technology entrepreneurs: Previous technology entrepreneurs arc those that don’t like change. They usually take the initiation of previous styled tasks. They’re hesitant lo hew expertise however keen on acquainted or conventional and prevailing expertise.

Conclusion: Distinction

Although the time period entrepreneur is usually used interchangeably with entrepreneurship, but they’re conceptually completely different.

The connection between the 2 is rather like the 2 sides of the identical coin as depicted within the following;

Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship
Particular person Course of
Organizer Group
Innovator Innovation
Danger-bearer Danger-bearing
Motivator Motivation
Creator Creation
Visualizer Imaginative and prescient
Chief Management
Imitator Imitation

Be taught extra in regards to the variations amongst Entrepreneurship, Intrapreneurship, Supervisor; right here.

An entrepreneur is perceived as an individual or a gaggle of individuals who holds a number of psychological strengths and takes manifold efforts to generate and to make a enterprise profitable.

In sum, the idea of the entrepreneur is intimately related to the three parts; risk-bearing, organizing and innovating. Thus, an entrepreneur will be outlined as an individual who tries to create one thing new, organizes manufacturing and undertakes dangers and handles financial uncertainty concerned within the enterprise.


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